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Medical guide

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Medical guide

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Rabies is an acute infectious disease of humans and animals. According to the provisions of the Law on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases, it is a Class B infectious disease. Once a person is ill, almost 100% die. Immediate treatment is the only effective means of preventing rabies.

Graded according to contact and bite

Level I: Contact or feed the animal, or the intact skin is paralyzed - no need to dispose of it.

Level II: The bare skin is bitten, or there is no slight bleeding or bruising of bleeding - the wound should be treated immediately and vaccinated against rabies.

Grade III: Grade II is considered to be Class II and has low immune function, or Class II injury is located on the head and face and the injured animal cannot be determined to be healthy. Single or multiple penetrating or scratching of the skin, or broken skin, or open wounds, mucous membranes - the wound should be treated immediately and the rabies passive immunization preparation should be injected, followed by rabies vaccine.

Disposal method

1. Wound treatment: This is of great significance for preventing the occurrence of rabies. Wound treatment includes thorough rinsing and disinfection. The sooner the local wound is treated, the better the mechanical force of the water flushing can help reduce the amount of virus residue in the wound. More importantly, the rabies virus is more sensitive to lipid solvents. Whether the injured person has treated the wound on his or her own, it should be flushed and disinfected by medical staff.

Wound Flush: Wash and rinse all bites and scratches alternately with 20% soapy water (or other weakly alkaline cleaner) and a flow of running water for at least 15 minutes. Then wash the wound with normal saline (or water), and finally use the sterile cotton wool to remove the residual liquid from the wound to avoid residual soapy water or detergent at the wound. For deeper wound irrigation, use a syringe or high-pressure pulse device to extend into the deep part of the wound for perfusion cleaning.

Disinfection: Thoroughly rinse and rub the wound with 2-3% iodine (iodine) or 75% alcohol. If the wound is broken and has more tissue, it should be removed first.

If the wound condition permits, suture should be avoided as much as possible.

2, rabies vaccination: the first rabies vaccination should be as early as possible. The rabies vaccine is inoculated with one dose per needle regardless of body weight and age. Human rabies can have a longer incubation period, as long as the injured person is not ill, regardless of how long it takes to vaccinate as soon as possible.

There are currently two types of vaccination procedures: 5-needle method: one dose for each of 0 (on the day of injection), 3, 7, 14 and 28 days.

                     4-needle method: One dose of rabies vaccine was injected into the left and right upper arms at 0 (on the day of injection), and then one dose was administered on the 7th and 21st days, respectively.

3. Passive immunization preparations: The injection method, dosage and precautions should be determined by the doctor.

The mortality rate of rabies is 100%, and there is no contraindication to rabies vaccination. A small number of people may have local redness, induration, etc. after inoculation, and generally do not require special treatment. Very few people may have a heavier response and should be treated promptly. If the vaccinator is found to have a serious adverse reaction to the rabies vaccine being used, another rabies vaccine can be replaced to continue the original vaccination program.